Zarina Hashmi

Zarina Hashmi: The Legacy of a Pioneering Contemporary Artist

Born in 1937 in Aligarh, India, Zarina Hashmi, who preferred to be known simply as Zarina, was an artist whose work transcended borders, both literally and metaphorically. Growing up in a period marked by the partition of India, her experiences of displacement and longing for home would later become central themes in her work. Zarina’s educational journey in art began somewhat unconventional. Initially, she pursued a degree in mathematics, a discipline that influenced the precision and abstraction in her later artworks. Her foray into the world of art was not through formal schooling but through her travels and personal explorations. Her marriage to a diplomat afforded her the opportunity to live in various parts of the world, including Thailand, Germany, and France. It was in Paris where she formally studied printmaking, a medium that became her primary mode of expression.

Artistic Journey and Themes

Zarina’s art is characterized by its minimalistic aesthetic, often employing a monochromatic palette and favoring materials such as paper, wood, and metal. Her work is deeply autobiographical, drawing from her experiences of migration, memory, and loss. She was adept at printmaking, using techniques like etching, woodblock, and letterpress to explore the concepts of home, displacement, and belonging.

One of the distinctive aspects of Zarina’s art is her use of Urdu calligraphy, not merely as a form of writing but as a visual symbol imbued with personal and cultural resonance. Her art, while abstract, speaks volumes about the partitions—both of land and in the human heart—that have defined much of the South Asian diaspora’s experiences.

Her series “Homes I Made/A Life in Nine Lines” (1997) and “These Cities Blotted into the Wilderness (Adrienne Rich after Ghalib)” (2003) are poignant explorations of these themes. In them, Zarina not only maps her geographical journeys but also charts the emotional landscapes of memory and longing. Through her work, she invites viewers to contemplate the meaning of home and the universal experience of searching for a place to belong.

Recognition and Legacy

Despite her significant contributions to contemporary art, Zarina’s work remained under-recognized for much of her career. It was not until later in life that her contributions began to receive the international acclaim they deserved. In 2011, her work was included in the Venice Biennale, a prestigious event in the art world. Further recognition came in 2013, when the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles organized a retrospective of her work, titled “Zarina: Paper Like Skin.” This exhibition marked the first retrospective of an Indian woman artist in the United States, highlighting Zarina’s role as a pioneer for women artists, particularly those of South Asian descent.

Zarina’s influence extends beyond her own artworks. She was a mentor and inspiration to younger generations of artists, particularly those interested in the diasporic experiences and the politics of space and identity. Her legacy is also preserved in her contributions to the feminist and minimalist movements, where her work stands out for its emotional depth and conceptual rigor.


Zarina Hashmi’s art is a testament to the power of minimalism to convey complex histories and emotions. Through her masterful use of printmaking and her exploration of themes such as home, displacement, and belonging, she created a body of work that resonates with a wide audience. Her contributions to contemporary art are significant, not only for their aesthetic value but also for their engagement with pressing issues of identity, migration, and the human condition.

Zarina’s story is one of resilience, innovation, and the relentless pursuit of expression. In her passing in 2020, the art world lost a luminous figure, but her legacy endures through her artworks and the many lives she touched. Zarina Hashmi’s work remains a beacon for those navigating the complexities of identity and belonging in a fragmented world, reminding us of the power of art to bridge divides and heal wounds.

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